Nucleus seed production
Nucleus seed is the basic seed produced under the strict supervision of concerned crop breeder. The progeny bulk from maintenance breeding is utilized to produce nucleus seed. Nucleus seeds are produced with better management to get higher quantity and quality of seeds. In case of high volume seed crops, one more stage of basic seed multiplication is carried out under the strict supervision of concerned crop breeder in order to get the required quantity of nucleus seed for production of breeder seeds.
Breeder seed production
The concerned crop breeder who has developed the variety/hybrid or the sponsored breeder in the public/private institute has to produce breeder seed and supply to the indenting seed producing agencies. Nucleus seed material is utilized for breeder seed production. UAS, Bengaluru is one of the leading public institute that is producing and supplying breeder seeds of different field crops like paddy, ragi, maize, cowpea, chickpea, horse gram, field bean, redgram, blackgram, sunflower, soybean etc. to meet out the demands of various seed producing agencies of the country and the state.
Foundation seed production
Foundation seed is the progeny of breeder seed. The seed stock handled to maintain specific identity and genetic purity, which may be designated or distributed and produced under careful supervision of scientist. This is an important stage in the production chain for further multiplication to give the seed material for certified seed producers. The University is producing foundation seeds of important crops including the high volume crops like paddy, ragi, maize greengram, redgram etc. Foundation seed production has thus become an important activity with significant enhancement in total production.
Certified/Truthfully labeled seed production
Certified seed is the progeny of the foundation seed. Its production is so handled to maintain genetical identity and physical purity according to standards specified for the crop being certified. It should have the minimum genetical purity of 99%. Certified seed may be the progeny of certified seed, provided this reproduction does not exceed two generations beyond foundation seed and provided that if certification agency determines the genetic and physical purity, if not be significantly altered. In case of highly self pollinated crops certification of one further generation may be permitted. Certified seed produced from certified seed shall be eligible for further seed increase under certification, except in case of highly self-pollinated crops, where certification of one further generation may be permitted. The recently released varieties/hybrids take more time to reach the farmer’s fields because of lengthy seed production system and several failures in seed production chain. In order to hasten the process of reaching the farmers with new varieties/hybrids, certified/TL seed production has been taken up on University farms.
The production of these classes of seeds has also been taken up on large scale under Seed Village concept through farmers participatory seed production programmes. Certified/TL seed production has also increased to more than thousand quintals during recent years and university has produced 21250 q during 2015-16. It helped to assess the on farm performance of newly released hybrids/varieties on large scale on farmers fields to identify the most suitable areas for further growing. The certified seed production programme is also under taken to supply the seeds to various agencies like Karnataka State Seed Corporation, National Seed Corporation, Karnataka milk federation, Coconut development board etc.
List of new varieties/hybrids promoted during last five years
|Crop||New variety is being popularized|
|Paddy||Thanu, PUMB-8, KRH-2, KRH-4, KCP-1, MTU-1001, MTU-1010, KHP-10|
|Aerobic Rice||MAS-26 and MAS-946-1|
|Ragi||MR-6, GPU-48, GPU-66, GPU-67, KMR-204, KMR-301 and ML-365|
|Maize (Hybrid)||Nithyshree and Hema|
|Red gram||BRG-1, BRG-2, BRG-4 and BRG-5|
|Cowpea||IT 38956-1, KBC-2, MFC-08-14, KM-5, PKB-4, PKB-6 and AV-5|
|Bengal gram||JG-11, KAK-2 and Vishal|
|Field bean||HA -3 & HA-4|
|Sunflower||KBSH-41, KBSH-42, KBSH-44 and KBSH-53|
|Groundnut||KCG-2, ICGV-91114, K-6 and GPBD-4 , GKVK-5|
Significant features of latest varieties brought into seed chain
|1||Ragi||GPU-66||110-115||Kharif||35-38||High tillering, tall plant, ear heads are open and tip incurved.|
|GPU-67||110-115||Kharif||35||Semi-dwarf stature upward foliage.
Small ear heads semi-fist type.
|KMR-204||100-105||Kharif||30-35||Brick red grains, resistant to blast.|
|2||Hy. Paddy||KRH-4||130-134||Kharif & Summer||77-78||12 % higher yield over KRH-2 and suitable for irrigated situations.|
|Paddy||KCP-1||125-130||Kharif & Summer||60-65||White long bold grains suitable for Coastal or Maidan eco-system.|
|Raksha (KMP-105)||115-120||Kharif &
|55-60||Blast tolerant, medium slender grains|
|3||Red gram||BRG-4||140-145||Kharif||14||Suitable for late planting or delayed monsoon.|
|10-12||Semi-determinate and pods are upright before maturity bold white seeded, tolerant to leave spot and rust.|
|Vegetable Cowpea||AV-5 / PKB-6/ PKB-4||80-85||Aug-Sept
|96||Bold seeds / pods used for vegetables.|
|5||Sesame||GT-1||85-90||Kharif||6.0-6.5||White seeded type|
|285||High crude protein yield (4.48 q/ha),
High leaf to stem ratio of 0.43.
|7||Grain Amaranth||KBGA-1||80-85||-||12-14||Medium plant height, high protein,
purple colour inflorescence
|8||Groundnut||KCG-2||118-120||Kharif / Rabi & Summer||12-15||High oil content (47%),
tolerant to tikka disease.
|9||Maize Hybrid||Hema||115-120||Kharif / Summer||90-95||Plants stay green at harvest,
tolerant to Turcicum leaf blight.
|10||Blackgram||Rashmi||75-80||Kharif / Summer||10-12||Suitable for machine harvesting|
Progress in Breeder seed / Foundation Seed / Certified Seed / Truthfully Labeled seed production from 2011-12 to 2015-16
(Quantity in quintals)
|CS/ TL seed||27876.25||17461.27||23219.98||31410.00||17866.00|
Fig. Progress in quality seed production over the years
During 2015-16, about 21,240 quintals of various kinds of seed have been produced, processed and distributed. However, during 2016-17, the University had planned to organize seed production of around 37,100 q by involving farmers under seed village concept. Under the seed village programme, nearly about 179 villages have been covered involving 5097 farmers for quality seed production as well as imparting training on various aspects of quality seed production, testing and storage of different crops.
Implementation of Seed Village Programme
The University of Agricultural; Sciences, Bengaluru (UASB) has been involved in organizing quality seed production at a large scale since 2006-07 through seed village concept by involving the farmers under “Scientists Farmers Participatory Program (SFPP)” to make quality seeds available to the farmers locally and to facilitate the transfer of technology at the door steps to farming community. This scheme enabled to increase the seed replacement rates in the field crops significantly and contribute for higher productivity and production in the state as well as in the country. In addition, the UASB is also imparting training programs on seed production, seed testing and seed storage of different field crop seeds like Cereals, Pulses and Oilseed crops, mainly to train the rural youth (both men and women) and to deploy them in quality seed production and further distribution among other farmers. The training programme are being organized by involving farmers in their own field who are taking up seed production with latest seed production technologies and demonstrate the importance of quality seeds for larger group of farmers in the village and nearby villages.
The main objectives of Seed village Programme are:
- To make available of quality seeds to farmers timely at reasonable price.
- To increase the Seed and Variety Replacement Rates (SRR & VRR) by producing quality seeds of improved varieties and their distribution.
- To train the farmers on quality seed production both on-campus and off-campus.
- To deploy farm youth (both men & Women) in quality seed production and to create employment at the rural level.
- To faster spread of new varieties and transfer technology
- To improve the socio-economic conditions of the farming community
Implementation of Tribal Sub-Plan
Government of India envisaged for improving the living conditions of tribal people located in South Karnataka through providing incentives like distribution of improved variety seeds and other agricultural inputs for cultivation. Besides, providing educational activities, supply of agricultural inputs enhance their productivity. With this in view the National Seed Project has implemented Tribal Sub-Plan by conducting onsite training programmers for the tribals during pre-monsoon and to provide quality seeds, agricultural implements and storage structure etc.